Useful Tips on How to Write Literature Reviews
Literature review should make the research direction more definite and specific, should serve a stimulus to the advance of the researcher’s own thoughts and ideas, should become the basis for new knowledge acquisition. Literature review must present only highly relevant information; at the same time much of the acquired data will remain unused (or at least may be resorted to later in the course of a further in-depth research) and behind the research brackets. There are three steps of a source study:
- preparatory (to examine the overall context of a source creation);
- main (to analyze the main ideas and logics of a source: to single them out and compare with the context);
- main (to analyze the main ideas and logics of a source: to single them out and compare with the context);
Here are some pieces of advice how to organize the work with sources:
- Take notes conscientiously in order not to be confused with the ever-increasing portions of analyzed information as you read more and more with the course of your research.
- Work methodically, systematically and regularly in order not to be buried under the accumulated mountain of newly-acquired sources. Mind your deadlines.
- Read selectively in order not to waste your precious and limited research time. While getting acquainted with a new source, pay prime attention to the preface; scan the table of contents and the index; then read the promising sections.
- Be careful with the copyright and do not copy everything. You will need only the limited range of citations pertinent to your paper. Sometimes it is better to paraphrase the citation than to use it verbatim. It will launch your own creative thinking mechanism.
- Weave every piece of information coherently and cohesively into the overall research picture. Classify and compare your data to find interconnections.
- Be objective and critical while selecting research facts. Pay attention to their recent character and trustworthiness level.
- Mind historical, linguistic and psychological peculiarities of different texts. Do assume a wider frame of mind while approaching them. Resort to your tutor’s help whenever necessary.
- Keep your review up to date. Monitor the new sources publication. Feel the science development pulse.
If you have a thousand sources and only one night, narrow the scope of your sources down to a few that are really important for your own research. They can be:
- works with obvious relevance to your topic;
- works with obvious relevance to your topic;
- works frequently cited. Get familiar with the Science Citation Index, the Social Science Citation Index, the Arts and Humanities Citation Index.
- primary and secondary sources;
- books with bibliographies.
If you require professional help in the literature review writing, MasterPapers.com is the very resource you need. Having accumulated numerous instances of experience on how to review literature in different fields of science, the company can create a literature review in any branch that will be a paragon of its kind.
Learn to Shape your Thoughts into a Proper Thesis Format
The formats of presenting information on the sources you use for your research may vary, depending on the discipline in which you are doing research.
MLA Format is recommended by the Modern Language Association for research papers on Humanities. MLA Thesis Format presupposes internal (parenthetical) citation. It includes two steps: citing each source in parentheses as you use it in the very text, and making a list of Works Cited at the end of your paper.
A thesis in the humanities normally includes secondary as well as primary sources and is organized as follows:
- In the introduction you identify the particular work you will consider in the paper and formulate the question that will guide your investigation.
- In the body of the paper you develop an answer to the basic question in terms of individual works, supplemented by comments drawn from secondary sources (books and articles). They help you to sharpen the edge of your argument; but the works themselves should be the prime source of evidence for it.
- In the conclusion you restate the main point of your argument and indicate what it contributes to our understanding of the discussed work.
APA Format is recommended by the American Psychological Association and provides guidelines for writers of research papers in the Social Sciences. The APA Thesis Format recommends short references documented within the text (internal or parenthetical citation) and a complete list of sources (references) at the end of the paper. APA manuscripts submitted for publication require an abstract, which is a short, comprehensive summary of the paper, yet many undergraduate papers will use an outline instead.
A thesis in the social sciences (a case study or a report of findings) normally includes the following parts:
- The introduction states the question you propose to answer and explains how the methods of a particular social science can help you find and interpret the data needed to answer this question.
- The methods section indicates how you gathered the data for your study (the characteristics of the studied group; methods of observation, interview, questionnaire; printed sources consultation) for other researchers in order to repeat your study and test its results.
- The results section puts the raw data you have gathered into clearly organized form: paragraphs, tabulated listings, illustrations or graphs.
- The discussion section interprets the results of the study and explains its significance for an understanding of the topic as a whole.
- The conclusion briefly summarizes the main points of the study.
Each subject in the Natural Sciences has its own style of documentation, that is why you must follow the specific thesis format that your instructor requests in a separate natural science.
Research papers in the natural sciences are of two kinds: review papers (analyze the current state of knowledge on a specialized topic) and laboratory reports (present the results of an actual experiment). Both kinds normally begin with an abstract. A review paper has:
- topic development,
A laboratory report presents its materials as follows:
- The title succinctly states what was tested.
- The abstract summarizes the report in about 200 words.
- The introduction explains the question that the lab test is designed to answer.
- A section on methods and materials explains how th experiment was made, what apparatus was used, and how data were collected.
- A section on results puts the data into clearly organized form, using graphs, tables and illustrations where necessary.
- The conclusion explains the significance of the results.
- A reference list gives any published sources used, including any manuals or textbooks.
It is next to impossible to become a past expert in every field of science. Instead, you are welcome to resort to the highly professional help of MasterPapers.com. It will take care of any thesis format in any academic branch.
Get to know more about the rules of doing a PhD thesis
The degree, Doctor of Philosophy, is generally considered to be the highest in any field of study in most universities. A PhD degree holder would produce post-doctoral work which may fetch him a degree, Doctor of Literature (D.Lit). A scholar striving to acquire the highest degree is required to submit a dissertation of a stipulated length, apart from doing practical research and writing theory examinations. A PhD thesis or dissertation is generally defended by the candidate in a public Viva voce.
Creative writing and theses:
Thesis writing or dissertation writing is quite different from creative writing, for the simple reason that the former is written according to certain conventional norms. The candidate is supervised and helped by a Guide in adopting the correct methodology, as well as in using the appropriate material to be typed as a thesis. When it is sent for adjudication at the end of the study period (usually 3years), two examiners are chosen from outside the university where the candidate does research. The supervisor also is one of the examiners.
Beginning a thesis:
You begin a PhD thesis with the following:
- The title page – includes the name of the candidate, the name of the university and the year of submitting the dissertation. These facts are given in the pattern of an inverted pyramid.
- There are certificates signed by the candidate and the supervisor to state that only original unpublished work is present.
- There are one or two pages of acknowledgement in which the candidate expresses his gratitude to all those who have helped him in the research and also to the publishers of the references he has used.
- The page of contents would give the chapter titles and the corresponding page. The number of pages of a thesis is generally stipulated by the university. Rules regarding page formatting are also to be observed implicitly. A specific margin is left on all sides pages of the thesis.
- At the end of the thesis a bibliographical list is added. If necessary there may be appendixes added.
Inclusion of quotes in the thesis:
One of the foremost principles of writing a doctoral thesis is to avoid any semblance of plagiarism. At the same time, stringing of a series of quotations, even with the necessary references, would not be right. In fact, doing this is essay writing would not be considered right too.
In recent times there is a perceptible dip in the quality of PhD dissertations. The downtrend may not be entirely because of the candidate themselves. There are instances of examiners being a bit careless and even callous. Mediatory efforts are required to set things right, so that the final product is perfect. In any case, it is necessary for the student to ensure that recommendations and suggestions made by the examiners are incorporated.
A PhD thesis sums up the research findings in the concluding chapter. It also is expected to indicate information available elsewhere on the subject of research. The researcher needs to suggest further research by pointing out the factors still to be studied.
When you decide to write about a particular topic, it is important to be able to select a topic that is not just informative, but also one that can help catch the attention of the reader. I do agree that writing a dissertation is not the same as trying to write a best seller. You are not out to catch the eye of the average reader, when you are deciding on a good Dissertation Title. Be that as it may, it is important that the title that you have for your dissertation, gives the reader an idea of what you are going to talk about.
For instance, if your dissertation or thesis is going to be about climate change or a particular aspect of the same topic, it is important to include this in your topic. You could have a topic such as ‘The ill-effects of climate change’ or ‘How can we help combat climate change’ or something like that which will impress the person who is reviewing your dissertation. Remember that once you have done all that you can do ensure that your dissertation writing is of good caliber, it is left to the discretion of the reviewer to understand and comment on what you have written.
While choosing the right title for your paper, you will find that it is equally important to avoid the habit of making it too long. There are some people who think that the entire essence of the paper should be conveyed in the Dissertation Title. This is certainly not an easy thing to do. You could just bring into your title an idea of what you are going to do on the subject at hand. Once you have done that, you can indicate in your introduction and your thesis statement, all that you are going to do in the forthcoming dissertation or essay.
Over a period of time, you will realize that it is important to have a proper plan, before you embark on the job of writing your dissertation. This is an activity that cannot be done in a single day. Please do not make the mistake of waiting for the end of the course to begin your writing. It would certainly help, if you could begin jotting down points and making notes on all that you are going to write in your final dissertation. Think of the advice dissertation that many of your predecessors would like to give you. These tips are certainly useful.
All dissertation help needs to be looked at in the right perspective, if you want to have a good product at the end of your course. Zoning in on the right Dissertation Title is the first step in having a good paper at the end of your degree. Of course, you could also seriously consider the option of purchasing a custom dissertation paper from a good source, through the internet.
A dissertation paper cannot simply have lousy entries and research results. It is one of the most demanding types of projects in school. Therefore, you should do your best in researching for the values that will support your thesis statement or solve your problem. There are many dissertation research methods that you can utilize. Primarily, these methods are regarded as statistical methods. They are especially important whenever you are going to use numbers in acquiring data. So what are the methods of data gathering for researching?
Some middle school writing prompts will not demand for statistical data procedures. However, those that are to be published in college need it. Even for a simple college essay, you will sometimes be required to input a little of research results in number forms. Here is the list of data gathering techniques:
- Data mining – this process involves researching or searching for data values that were previously published. You may check out some research institutions or libraries for them.
- Surveying – this data gathering type involves the dissemination of survey questions to your target respondents. You will then need to encode and tally the data to help you in analysis.
- Experimenting – this is especially important for scientific research papers if you are to discover new knowledge parameters.
- Interviewing – the type of data gathering that involves interviewing respondents. It may be a time consuming process but at least you will get the exact answers of the respondents.
Dissertation research methods are easy to apply. As long as you have the proper guidance and knowledge in utilizing them, then you can write a credible research paper.
Some students are not familiar with the different citation styles that can be used for writing a dissertation paper. Take note that you cannot accomplish writing a thesis paper unless you can cite the resource materials where you will acquire the research results. In this case, understanding ‘what is MLA format’ can really be a necessary thing to do and a part of how to write a research paper understanding.
What is MLA format concerns the general idea of what citation really is. Basically, you are citing your resources because you want to recognize the contribution of these materials in establishing your research results using an MLA research paper style. Also, citing the documents that you have utilized prevents the possibility of committing copyright offenses and therefore prevents plagiarism issues, a big problem for writers.
There are at least three scopes in understanding what MLA format is. Actually, the concept of using differ citation styles only need to take care of the pagination technique, in text citation procedures and the writing process of the bibliography page. For an MLA format, in text citation is done by having the author’s name and the page of his work indicated in the after the cited part of the document: (Garner 3). For the pagination style, you only need to include your surname followed by the corresponding page number: (Boyle 45). The bibliography page entries should always include the following details, author’s name, and publication year, title of the article, city where it was published, publishing company and the page and edition numbers. The title page of the bibliography section is usually indicated as Works Cited page. The entries should be alphabetical in order.
We have other articles and essays online that could help you to further understand ‘what is MLA format’. If you wish to take a look at them, you may go to our Archives section.
It is quite frustrating to think of a dissertation idea especially if you are going to write your first research paper. A student may have a hard time constructing the topics that he can possibly write because there are some factors to consider in doing this. Let me give you some tips on how to make your life easier when you are about to select dissertation ideas for your dissertation writing assignment.
- The dissertation idea that you can write should have relevance to the readers. This should be something that the readers can benefit from.
- It is just fine to select any topics but make sure that you are interested in them and that you can maintain your motivation to write for the topic.
- Some dissertation research methods may not apply to some topics. Therefore, you should consider the feasibility of the subject interest before choosing it.
- it will help if you will consult with your adviser as to how to select dissertation ideas. He can give you further tips on what to talk about in the research paper.
- A research paper topic must also be supported with many resource materials. Try to search for the files firstly and see what documents can really support your topic.
- The interest of the general population audience should also be considered, select a dissertation idea that is significant and timely.
Dissertation ideas are much simpler to come up with if you will follow the presented tips. Make sure to read our previous articles for more guidance.
How to make the methodology chapter of a thesis is not that big of a problem. Usually, students are lost in writing such a part because they think that it involves numerous technical understanding. But for the beginner that you are, it is appropriate that you first learn what necessary contents should be included in the methodology. In this case, let me give you the two most important parts of the methodology chapter of any dissertations.
The first part of the methodology is the data gathering procedure segment. As a researcher, you need to come up with a set of data that will support your results and assumptions. Usually, the methodology data gathering process involves numerical information and data. When you are trying to resolve the problem of the thesis statement, you can use the numerical data as a form of resource for analysis. Some of the most common data gathering processes are surveying, lab experimenting, interviewing and data mining.
The second part of how to make a methodology involves the parameter of data analysis. After you have gathered the necessary data, you can then proceed to analyze those using statistical methods that are recognized for thesis writing. Some of the most common types of data analysis methods are hypothesis testing, ANOVA, descriptive statistics presentation, multivariate analysis, bivariate analysis and correlation and regression analysis.
How to make a methodology can be solved by simply writing the chapter as a simple essay. You can then integrate the information about data gathering and data analysis procedures. Explain the processes in details so you can improve your reliability as a research paper writer. If you have more dissertation questions or if you need thesis help, you may request for assistance from us.
How to write a research paper is no longer a big of a problem. Right now, you can learn the basics in writing your term papers and dissertations. We will talk about the general step sin realizing and composing a well written article that intends to discover new things and prove a notion.
A research paper is a project in school that aims to develop your researching and writing skills. In this aspect, you should know how to compose a term paper using the basic strategies that are involved in composing a thesis for writing based on a simple article. Let me give you the steps.
These are the steps in how to write a research paper:
- Select a topic. When doing this, try to figure out the level of significance of the topic, measure your familiarity with the subject. Search for possible reference materials that you can use.
- Create the thesis statement. You can build a strong thesis statement when you assert an idea to be valid. Also, you can ask a question and generalize a notion at the same time.
- Write the parts. A research paper does not only involve the introduction, body and conclusion like an essay. You also need to learn how to write a literature review and know the basic data gathering procedures.
- Use citation formats like the APA or MLA styles of writing.
- Conduct the experimental design. You may survey, interview or do lab experiments. Thesis writing will always involve these steps.
- Proofread your work. You need to eliminate spelling and grammar errors when you are done writing the paper.
Now that you have an idea how to write a research paper, you can start your outline proposal. Make sure that your teacher approves your document before continuing with the research process.
A lot of times a student will ask how to make methodology. This is the same reason why many people are still looking for the best resources online with regards to writing a research paper*. Essentially, you need to be very familiar with doing the methodology chapter because it gives the reliability aspect of your entire thesis. This will have to include at least two parameter interests, data gathering and data analysis.
You have learned how to write a literature review. You have already read through the files about how to use citation styles. Now, how to make methodology chapters will be our key discussion for today. The first thing that you need to consider is the aspect of data gathering. Some of the basic data gathering procedures are used in statistics. These are interviewing, surveying, data mining and laboratory experiments.
Now, after you have gathered the necessary data, you need to use data analysis procedures to make sense out of them. There are still some statistical tools that you need to learn. These are all recognized formulas among researchers so you only need to master how to calculate data using the acquired information from your data gathering procedures. Some of the most common statistics analysis formulas are ANOVA, descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing, regression and correlation. You can apply to these formals to any research paper topics
How to make methodology is fairly easy. You only need to summarize the procedures undertaken to come up with a solid set of results and information. If you need any more dissertation assistance feel free to contact us.